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1. Evans, M.A., and Pei, E., (2010) "ID Cards". Loughborough University, ISBN: 978 1 907382 35 2.

ID Cards are one of the outcomes from a Loughborough Design School PhD undertaken by Dr Eujin Pei and supervised by Dr Mark Evans and Dr Ian Campbell. The aim of the research was to improve collaboration between industrial/product designers and engineering designers during New Product Development. Literature review, action research, surveys and observations were used to collect data during the development of the ID Cards. A central feature of the research methodology was a high degree of global engagement with educators and practitioners, with support being received from leading universities, consultancies and manufacturers. Research findings indicated a need to facilitate greater understanding of the language and methods used by industrial/product designers and engineering designers. The key design representations employed during New Product Development were identified and surveys undertaken to establish when they were used and for what types of information. This generated large amounts of data that was converted into a playing card based tool for use by designers. ID Cards have translated and modified key elements of the 114 double-side cards into a more portable and accessible format to support the education and practice of designers at all levels. The ID Cards are now available as a Z-card folded media in pocket size (16 December 2010).

(Above) The ID Cards were distributed to students as a reference for learning.


Further Reading


1. Eujin Pei (2009) "Building a Common Language of Design Representations for Industrial Designers & Engineering Designers". PhD Thesis, Department of Design and Technology, Loughborough University, United Kingdom

To achieve success in today’s competitive environment, companies are realising the importance of design collaboration during new product development. The aim of this research was to develop a collaborative design tool for use by industrial designers and engineering designers. To achieve this, a literature review was undertaken to understand the working relationship among the two disciplines during new product development. Following this, empirical research through interviews and observations outlined three problem areas: conflicts in values and principles; differences in education; and differences in representational tools and methods. The latter was chosen because the problem area of design representations was found to be highly significant. In looking at bridging differences in design representations, a taxonomy comprising 35 forms of sketches, drawings, models and prototypes was generated. A second stage of empirical research was conducted to establish the popularity of each representation and the type of design / technical information that industrial designers and engineering designers communicated with. The information was indexed into ‘CoLab’ cards that would enable the two disciplines to gain joint understanding and create shared knowledge when using visual design representations. Following a pilot evaluation and minor modifications, student and practitioner interviews with a case study were employed to assess the significance of CoLab. The findings revealed that a majority of the interviewees felt that the tool had built a common ground through having a common understanding in use of visual design representations.

2. Eujin Pei, R. I. Campbell and M. A. Evans (2011) "A Taxonomic Classification of Visual Design Representations Used by Industrial Designers and Engineering Designers" The Design Journal, 14 (1): 64-91

In the context of new product development (NPD), research has shown that not having a common understanding of visual design representations (VDRs) has affected collaboration between industrial designers and engineering designers when working together. The aim of the research presented in this paper was two-fold. Firstly, to identify the representations employed by industrial designers and engineering designers during NPD from a literature survey. Secondly, to define and categorize these representations  in the form of a taxonomy that is a systematic organization of VDRs that are presently dispersed in the literature. For the development of the taxonomy, four measures encompassing orthogonality, spanning, completeness and usability were employed. It resulted in four groups consisting of sketches, drawings, models and prototypes. Validation was undertaken by means of an interview survey and further, presenting the taxonomy at an international conference. The results showed that no issues were raised by the respondents concerning the structure of the taxonomy or its components. // Keywords: visual design representations, industrial design, engineering design

3. Eujin Pei, R. I. Campbell and M. A. Evans (2010) “Development of a tool for building shared representations among industrial designers and engineering designers” CoDesign, 6 (3): 139 - 166, ISSN 1571-0882.

Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of multi-disciplinary collaboration in New Product Development (NPD). As such, interactions between industrial designers and engineering designers have become increasingly important. This research project aims to build a shared understanding between the two disciplines during NPD. Following empirical research that revealed collaboration-related problem areas, as well as collecting data concerning the use of design representations, a card system was developed to provide information on the role and significance of design representations, leading to joint understanding, improved communication and creation of shared knowledge. When asked in the validation study if the system would foster collaboration, 68.2% of industrial designers and 63.2% of the engineering designers gave a good and excellent rating, indicating that the system could play a significant role towards the support of multi-disciplinary teamwork. // Keywords: collaboration; design representation; industrial design; engineering design; new product development; product design


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